treat the space program as one area of domestic policy competing with
other concerns, not as a privileged activity
lower U.S. ambitions in space by ending human spaceflight beyond low Earth
orbit for the foreseeable future and not embark on another space goal
requiring a massive investment similar to Apollo
build NASA’s post-Apollo program around the space shuttle without
establishing a specific goal or long-term strategy the shuttle would
saw the Apollo 11 mission as an opportunity to tie achievements in space
to his foreign policy goals, which he gave much higher priority. He made a
great effort to ensure he was fully identified with the mission and its
success, and he never once mentioned John F. Kennedy in connection with Apollo.
wanted former astronaut Frank Borman, commander of Apollo 8, to be the
next NASA Administrator, but he had to settle for NASA Deputy
Administrator Tom Paine.
1971 budget included a 10 percent reduction for NASA, so the agency was
not rewarded for the success of Apollo 11.
supported increased international cooperation in space, but he thought
that should primarily mean flying foreign astronauts on U.S. space craft,
particularly German, Japanese, British, and French astronauts. NASA leadership
anticipated that international cooperation would include hardware
contributions from other nations.
wanted to change NASA into an applied technology development agency, but
the effort failed.
is often blamed for the cancellation of the final two planned Apollo
missions, but Logsdon emphasizes that NASA Administrator Tom Paine agreed
to give up the Saturn V in order to free up resources in the budget for
the shuttle and station programs. It was NASA that also chose to cancel
the last two Apollo flights to channel resources to the space shuttle
was the first U.S. President to see a human space launch (Apollo 12).
was apparently deeply affected by the near tragic events of Apollo 13, and
felt very connected to the crew during their ordeal. As a result, Nixon
proposed to cancel Apollo 16 and 17 ahead of the 1972 election, for fear
that something could go wrong with one of the missions and impact his
December 1972, as Apollo 17 was returning to Earth, Nixon issued a
statement saying, “This may be the last time in this century that men will
walk on the Moon.”